Magnesium Glycl Glutamine
Glutamine is an amino acid that plays an important role in supporting the
immune system, promoting muscle protein synthesis and counteracting muscle
catabolism. Glutamine also neutralizes acidosis in the intestinal tract,
enhances intestinal absorption of nutrients, and can act as an energy source
(Roth, 1982, Rowbottom 1996). Studies show that the changes in intestinal
glutamine metabolism are intimately tied to the needs of the liver for
substrates, and in particular amino acids, to meet the increased demands for
enhanced glucose utilization during times of stress (Naji, 1995). Infection,
strenuous exercise and trauma can severely deplete the body?fs glutamine stores
and can cause temporary glutamine deficiency. In fact, glutamine is critical to
the body?fs ability to create new muscle tissue. It has been called the
Non-essential essential amino-acid because of its increasing deficiency in
humans. A deficiency in glutamine contributes to muscle wasting, reduced immune
response, and decreased multi-organ function.
Although it is known that glutamine supports the optimal functioning of vital
organs and systems, providing bioavailable glutamine in a supplemental form has
always been a problem. The free-form glutamines and L-glutamines available in
most health food stores are not stable and decompose readily in the digestive
tract and are, therefore, unable to sufficiently provide the benefits listed
above except in large dosages and with some possible toxic build up. Together
with Albion Laboratories OHS has developed and patented the only stabilized form
of the glutamine molecule available today. Studies show that this stabilized
Magnesium Glycl Glutamine molecule remains stable in solution and is readily
assimilated into the mucosal cell (Ashmead, 1998). This is the only stabilized
glutamine in existence.
Glutamine is highly utilized by cells of the immune system and is considered
to be an important fuel for immune cells. In fact, a decrease in plasma
glutamine level in vivo has shown to induce immunosuppression. Furthermore,
glutamine is also an important amino acid for a source of purine and pyrimidine
nucleotides. Taken together, the hypothesis is advanced that a decreased plasma
glutamine concentration after acute or strenuous exercise causes an impairment
of immune system such as mitogenesis and NK activity (Moriguchi, 1995).
Critical illness, whether secondary to accidental injury, severe infection,
burns, or diabetic ketoacidosis, is characterized by a loss of body protein. The
findings from a study by Muhlbacher, et al, suggest that the high circulating
levels of glucocorticoids in these various disease states may be responsible for
the changes in glutamine concentrations and metabolism (Muhlbacher, 1984).
Glutamine is considered to be a potential candidate for use in oral
rehydration solutions, the mainstay of treating dehydration due to diarrhea.
This is based on the fact that glutamine stimulates Na absorption in the small
intestine of animals and patients with cholera (Nath, 1992).
Glutamine is an amino acid essential for many important homeostatic functions
and for the optimal functioning of a number of tissues in the body, particularly
the immune system and the gut. However, during various catabolic states, such as
infection, surgery, trauma and acidosis, glutamine homeostasis is placed under
stress, and glutamine reserves, particularly in skeletal muscle, are depleted (Rowbottom,
Ashmead D. H., Albion Laboratory?fs International Conference, January 1998
Moriguichi S, Miwa H, Kishino Y. Glutamine supplementation prevents the
decrease of mitogen response after a treadmill exercise in rats. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol, 1995, 41:115-125.
Muhlbacher F, et al. Effects of glucocorticoids on glutamine metabolism in
skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol, 1984, 247:E75-E83.
Nath SK, et al. [14C] and [15N] glutamine fluxes across rabbit ileum in
experimental bacterial diarrhea. Am J Physiol, 1992, 262:G312-G18.
Roth, E., et al. Metabolic Disorders in Severe Abdominal Sepsis, Glutamine
Deficiency in Skeletal Muscle. Clin Nutr 1 (1982): 25-41
Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an
indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med, 1996, Feb 21 (2):